# 3 Screening out weather

## 3.1 using correlation coefficient

Screening precipitation based on correlation coefficient is arguably the most simple and established approach for screening out weather in cases where dual-polarization data is available. It is based on removing data above a certain $$\rho_{/HV}$$ tresholds, most commonly 0.95.

# Screen out the reflectivity areas with RHOHV < 0.95
my_ppi_clean <- calculate_param(my_ppi, DBZH = ifelse(RHOHV > 0.95, NA, DBZH))
# plot the original and cleaned up reflectivity:
map(my_ppi, map = basemap, param = "DBZH", zlim = c(-20, 40))
map(my_ppi_clean, map = basemap, param = "DBZH", zlim = c(-20, 40))

## 3.2 using MistNet

You can use MistNet for screening out weather when * the radar operates at S-band wavelengths * you only have single polarization data available (specifically, the three basic quantities radial velocity VRADH, reflectivity DBZH, and spectrum width WRADH).

# apply the MistNet model to the polar volume file and load it as a polar volume (pvol):
my_pvol <- apply_mistnet(my_pvolfiles[1])
# mistnet will add additional parameters to the
# elevation scans at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 degrees
# let's extract the scan closest to 0.5 degrees:
my_scan <- get_scan(my_pvol, 0.5)
# plot some summary info about the scan to the console:
my_scan

## 3.3 using depolarization ratio

Another quantity that has been proposed for distinguishing weather and biology is the depolarization ratio ($$D_r$$), which is defined as

$D_r=\frac{Z_{DR}+ 1 -2 \sqrt{Z_{DR}} \ \rho_{HV}}{Z_{DR}+ 1 +2 \sqrt{Z_{DR}} \ \rho_{HV}}$ First we add the depolarization ratio (DR) as a parameter. We’ll express DR on a dB scale by transforming: $DR=10\log_{10}(D_r)$ (see Kilambi et al. 2018, A Simple and Effective Method for Separating Meteorological from Nonmeteorological Targets Using Dual-Polarization Data for more information)

# let's add depolarization ratio (DR) as a parameter (following Kilambi 2018):
my_ppi <- calculate_param(my_ppi, DR = 10 * log10((1+ ZDR - 2 * (ZDR^0.5) * RHOHV) /
(1 + ZDR+ 2 * (ZDR^0.5) * RHOHV)))

Like correlation coefficient you can apply simple thresholds to its value to screen out precipitation. It has a good (potentially even better) ability to distinguish weather and biology:

  # plot the depolarization ratio, using a viridis color palette:
map(my_ppi, map = basemap, param = "DR", zlim=c(-25,-5), palette = viridis::viridis(100))

MistNet adds several new parameters: * WEATHER: a probability (0-1) for the weather class * BIOLOGY: a probability (0-1) for the biology class * BACKGROUND: a probability (0-1) for the background (empty space) class * CELL: the final segmentation, which is based on the WEATHER parameters of all five MistNet elevation scans. CELL also includes a fringe calculated by a region growing approach. CELL values equal 1 for the additional fringe, and 2 for the originally segmented precipitation area by MistNet.

# as before, project the scan as a ppi:
my_ppi <- project_as_ppi(my_scan)
# plot the probability for the WEATHER class
plot(my_ppi, param = 'WEATHER')
# plot the final segmentation result:
# plot the probability for the WEATHER class
plot(my_ppi, param = 'CELL')
# let's remove the identified precipitation area (and additional fringe) from the ppi, and plot it:
my_ppi_clean <- calculate_param(my_ppi, DBZH = ifelse(CELL >= 1, NA, DBZH))
map(my_ppi_clean, map=basemap, param = 'DBZH')

Exercise 4: Calculate and plot a ‘cleaned up’ PPI for the radial velocity that includes only the segmentation by MistNet and not the additional fringe.